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Posts Tagged ‘Exegesis

Arminian Honesty About Acts 13:48

If I had to say one passage of Scripture that is difficult for me as an Arminian to reply to it would be Acts 13:48.  The text reads:

ESV: And when the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord, and as many as were appointed to eternal life believed.

NIV: When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.

NASB: When the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.

KJV: And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.

Adam Clarke offers this on verse 48:

This text has been most pitifully misunderstood. Many suppose that it simply means that those in that assembly who were fore-ordained; or predestinated by God’s decree, to eternal life, believed under the influence of that decree. Now, we should be careful to examine what a word means, before we attempt to fix its meaning. Whatever tetagmenoi may mean, which is the word we translate ordained, it is neither protetagmenoi nor proorismenoi which the apostle uses, but simply tetagmenoi, which includes no idea of pre-ordination or pre-destination of any kind. And if it even did, it would be rather hazardous to say that all those who believed at this time were such as actually persevered unto the end, and were saved unto eternal life. But, leaving all these precarious matters, what does the word tetagmenov mean? The verb tattw or tassw signifies to place, set, order, appoint, dispose; hence it has been considered here as implying the disposition or readiness of mind of several persons in the congregation, such as the religious proselytes mentioned ver. 43, who possessed the reverse of the disposition of those Jews who spake against those things, contradicting and blaspheming, ver. 45. Though the word in this place has been variously translated, yet, of all the meanings ever put on it, none agrees worse with its nature and known signification than that which represents it as intending those who were predestinated to eternal life: this is no meaning of the term, and should never be applied to it. Let us, without prejudice, consider the scope of the place: the Jews contradicted and blasphemed; the religious proselytes heard attentively, and received the word of life: the one party were utterly indisposed, through their own stubbornness, to receive the Gospel; the others, destitute of prejudice and prepossession, were glad to hear that, in the order of God, the Gentiles were included in the covenant of salvation through Christ Jesus; they, therefore, in this good state and order of mind, believed. Those who seek for the plain meaning of the word will find it here: those who wish to make out a sense, not from the Greek word, its use among the best Greek writers, and the obvious sense of the evangelist, but from their own creed, may continue to puzzle themselves and others; kindle their own fire, compass themselves with sparks, and walk in the light of their own fire, and of the sparks which they have kindled; and, in consequence, lie down in sorrow, having bidden adieu to the true meaning of a passage so very simple, taken in its connection, that one must wonder how it ever came to be misunderstood and misapplied.

F.F. Bruce wrote about verses 48-49:

Distasteful as this announcement was to the synagogue leaders, it was joyful news to the Gentiles who heard it, and many of them believed the gospel – all, in fact, who had been enrolled for eternal life in the records of heaven (for this appears to be the sense of the words here used).  And not only in the city itself, but throughout the surrounding countryside as well, those who believed the good news carried it to others.

In a footnote on Acts 13:48, Bruce wrote:

There is no good reason for weakening the predestinarian note here, as H. Alford does by rendering “as many as were disposed to eternal life.”

And Bruce goes on to show that the Greek participle used here in the sense of “inscribe” or “enroll” is used in other places both in the Old and New Testament as well as in other Greek and rabbinical writings.

In a commentary on Acts I have here before me written from a classical Pentecostal view (Robert Tourville), the writer comments about verse 48:

By way of contrast Paul had said (v. 46) that the Jews had “judged themselves unworthy of eternal life.”  This helps to understand what is meant by “as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.”  The word “appointed” (tetagmenoi) is a perfect tense participle of the passive voice, but it is also the middle voice form since there is no middle form as distinguished from the passive form.  In light of the context the middle form is the verb tosso, found in the New Testament eight times, of which four occur in Acts.  It is translated appointed, set, ordained, addicted, and devoted.  In the Septuagint it is used numerous times with varied meanings as, to order, appoint, assign, and arrange.  The same voice is used in Acts 28:23, where tosso is used to mean they “had arranged” or “had appointed” or “had set” a day in behalf of themselves.  This brings out the middle voice precisely as in this verse (48).  The same middle sense is found in Matthew 28:16 for this verb.  According to Liddell and Scott the word tosso is a military term meaning “to  draw up in order to battle,” to form array, marshal, to place in a certain order or relative position, to agree upon and settle.

From the above we see the word is used as an analogy.  The command has gone forth to believe on Jesus as Savior.  The Jews refused to believe but the Gentiles rejoice and glorify the word of the Lord by following in the rank with the other soldiers of the Cross.  Thus, they “arrange” themselves, order themselves, line up with eyes right in accord with the preaching of the gospel.  This fits the middle and passive meaning of the verb and harmonizes with the context.

The view above has been my own and remains.  That said, Acts 13:48 is a tough verse.  I am not shy in admitting that.  In my humble opinion, Acts 13:48 is the toughest verse I know to explain from an Arminian viewpoint.  In my estimation, the Calvinist view of Acts 13:48 is easier to hold to.

However, I will say that while Acts 13:48 is hard to explain, I don’t think we should interpret the Bible based just on Acts 13:48.  I know that Calvinists say that we should not interpret the entire Bible based on John 3:16.  I would agree.  We must allow the weight of Scripture determine our view.  Too often I find that Calvinists interpret the Bible based on TULIP instead of looking at the context of Scripture.  For example, I know many Calvinists hold to limited atonement because of TULIP and so they explain away many unlimited texts such as John 3:16 or Romans 11:32 or 1 Timothy 2:4 because it doesn’t fit into the TULIP system.  They base limited atonement on logic (well Jesus died only for the sheep, for the church and because of unconditional election, He certainly must have died only for the elect) instead of Scripture.

Likewise, just because I don’t understand fully Acts 13:48, this doesn’t mean that I take Acts 13:48 and then apply it to the conditional texts of election.  As I have written before, the mystery in Calvinism is how God can be good and gracious while He ordains whatsoever comes to pass including sin.  The mystery in Arminianism is how God works through free creatures to accomplish His divine will.  This mystery in Arminianism does not make God the author of sin and thus I am comfortable with this mystery.

Acts 13:48 has been a verse many Calvinists have looked to and used it to interpret even the whosoever verses.  It is a verse you will always see as a proof text for unconditional election.

As an Arminian, I don’t have an easy answer for Acts 13:48.  Again, I point to Tourville above as a common argument used by Arminians to answer Acts 13:48 but one in which Bruce above also denied.  While I am comfortable admitting that I don’t have an easy answer to Acts 13:48, I am okay with that.  It doesn’t mean that I must repent of my Arminianism and become a five pointer.  I simply acknowledge that I don’t have all the answers nor is Arminianism a perfect system.  We have unanswered questions.

My question is whether Calvinists would do the same?  Are they willing to admit that they don’t have a perfect system?  I suppose many would not.  Sadly, many Calvinists (though not all thank the Lord) hold that their system is the gospel.  I don’t.  I don’t believe either Arminianism nor Calvinism is the gospel.  I believe both are systems by which we seek to make sense of our salvation while acknowledging that God alone saves us by His grace (Jonah 2:9; Revelation 1:5-6).  Jesus Christ and not our systems is who saves us (Hebrews 7:25).  I am okay with mystery in my system.  My system flows from the teachings of Arminius as he best understood Scripture but Arminius was just a man who loved Christ and wanted to glorify Him.  It was created by a fallen man just as Calvinism flows from a fallen man.  Both systems flow from fallen men who sought to exalt the Lord Jesus by their teachings.  They were both imperfect men who needed Christ for their salvation.

So here I sit with Acts 13:48.  I am okay in saying that this verse is tough.  I am okay with listening to Calvinists explain the text as it fits into their system.  I am also okay with Arminians seeking to explain  why this verse is not a divine determinism passage.  As an Arminian, I admit my bias here but admit that I don’t know.  Indeed, God is God and He is bigger than I will ever understand nor can I grasp Him (Romans 11:33-36).  I am okay with and will continue to worship Him no matter what mysteries I cannot explain.

Preparing for Romans 9

I am preparing an entire series coming up on the blog on Romans 9.  My prayer is to be biblical, to offer correct exegesis of the chapter, and to provide Arminians with a look into this controversial chapter.  Calvinists have used Romans 9 for years to prove the doctrine of unconditional election and many Arminians have tripped over this chapter.  Dr. R.C. Sproul even stated that for the first five years of his salvation, he too was an Arminian but he couldn’t get around Romans 9 and so he surrendered with his head to Calvinism but not his heart until later.

I will be using several Bible commentaries to help me work through the chapter including F.F. Bruce, Jack Cottrell, and Vic Reasoner.  I also hope to add Matthew Henry and Adam Clarke in there as well.  Romans 9 is a wonderful chapter that has confused many.  I pray that we can all learn from Romans 9 even if you disagree with me over Arminianism.

Written by The Seeking Disciple

10/28/2013 at 12:18 PM

Posted in Romans 9

Tagged with ,

What Are You Reading For?

After reading a commentary on the book of Romans and especially studying Romans 9 for a series of posts I was doing on the subject of prevenient grace, I was struck with how people read the Bible looking for their own doctrines.  For instance, Dr. Vic Reasoner quoted Martyn Lloyd-Jones who states on Romans 9, “For anyone to exalt predestination as the main theme in this section in this selection is almost to be guilty of blasphemy.  It is God Himself in the glory of His person and character.  Predestination is merely one of the ways in which God works out His great purpose” (A Fundamental Wesleyan Commentary on Romans, p. 385).  

It seems that many go to Romans 9 or other places looking for their doctrines.  F. Leroy Forlines points out in his commentary on Romans that nearly 80% of all commentaries he had read saw Romans 9-11 as teaching unconditional election as the main subject.  Calvinists such as John Piper have written books on the subject of Romans 9 and conclude that God elects individuals unto salvation by His own sovereign decree and will.

I am convinced that when we read the Bible, we often read it looking for something.  I remember reading a man’s testimony of his “conversation” to Calvinism in which he said that after “God opened my eyes to the doctrines of grace, I begin to see them on every page.  The Bible was dripping with the sovereignty of God and His electing purposes.”  Really?  I don’t doubt that the Bible does speak of God’s sovereignty nor that election or predestination are subjects the Bible does deal with but to say that the Scriptures are dripping with their teachings are hard to fathom.

Unless you are looking for them.  If you are looking for a certain doctrine, it is there.  I am convinced that we can convince ourselves that any doctrine is there.  Whether it is right or wrong is another question.  I have watched Jehovah’s Witnesses find their pet doctrines in the pages of their New World Translation.  I have watched Mormon elders find doctrines such as baptism for the dead in 1 Corinthians 15:29.  I have watched antinomians build a case against living a holy life from the pages of Scripture.  Again, the issue is not whether they are right or wrong but they find their doctrines in their reading of the Bible.

This is why exegesis is so vital.  I know godly Calvinists would certainly agree.  Too often I myself am guilty of looking for Arminianism in the pages of Scripture.  I should be reading looking for Christ but instead I find myself looking for Arminius.  Instead of looking for Christ, for example, in the book of Revelation, we look for our end time views.  Instead of looking for the glory of Christ in John 6, we look for our proof texts on the drawing power of God.  Instead of looking for the glory of Christ in the book of Acts, we look for the work of the Holy Spirit, the style of the early Church, or evangelism.  Christ should be our focus.  All of Scripture points to Jesus (see Luke 24:26-27; John 20:31).  Christ is the glory of God.  Christ is the focus of the Bible.  Christ is faithfully revealed in the Bible.  I don’t doubt that all that the Bible says about history, science, geography, etc. is absolutely true but the purpose of the Bible is not to prove creationism or to disprove atheism or to prove Arminianism but the purpose of Scripture is this: to reveal the glory of God as He has revealed His glory in His Son (Colossians 1:15-20).  All of Scripture drips with the glory of the Lord Jesus from Genesis to Revelation.

So when you read the Bible, what are you reading for?  Are you looking for Christ or are you trying to prove your doctrines?  Are you looking for the glory of Christ in the pages of Scripture or are you looking for Calvinism or Arminianism?  Let us be careful to look for Christ and find that He is the One that is worthy of all worship and praise.  Jesus is not a doctrine.  He is our Risen Savior who lives forevermore!

Written by The Seeking Disciple

03/20/2013 at 3:14 PM

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